These are some types of techniques that are often used in poetry.
Metaphor: A metaphor is a form of figurative language that says something is something else.
For example: Love is a rose, it looks pretty on top but it always has its thorns.
Simile: a simile is another form of figurative language. It is when you compare something to another thing using words such as "like," or "as."
For example: School is like a grapefruit, sometimes it's sweet, sometimes it's sour.
Personification: personification is another form of figurative language, when you describe an inanimate object with human characteristics.
For example: the first rays of morning sunshine tiptoed through the damp meadow.
Alliteration: alliteration is when a letter, sound or beginning of a word occurs in a string of words or a line.
For example: This morning my moose made my mom mad/she made the moose make marmalade to make up for his mistake.
Rhyme Scheme: rhyme scheme is the order or pattern of rhymes. For example:
The fat brown cat (a)
had a very nice chair (b)
that would brag about as he sat (a)
but he would not share (b)
there once was a cat (a)
who sat on a mat (a)
and there once was a bug (b)
who sat on a bath rug (b)
they became good friends (c)
but to all good ends (c)
the bug was killed (d)
when the bath water was spilled (d)
Imagery: Imagery is when you describe something using vivid words that paint an image in the reader's head.
For example: the waves crashed on the beach's jagged rocks jutting out into the salty night air. Even the stars hid their twinkling faces behind the angry grey clouds up in the sky. A fork of lightning flashed, illuminating the darkness for a second, before disappearing as quickly as it had come. Rain thudded onto rooftops, and wind howled a long, sad, tune that carried up the peninsula.
Pun: a play on words, using two different meanings of the same word humorously.
For example: Lettuce say thanks for this delicious salad!
Hyperbole: a hyperbole is a huge exaggeration
For example: That joke is so old, last time I heard it I laughed so hard I fell of my dinosaur!